Early Signs of Neurological Issues in Babies: Seizures in Newborns

11 Jan 2022
Discover the signs, causes, and treatments for seizures in newborns. Knowledge for empowered parenting.

Understanding Newborn Neurological Disorders

Newborn neurological disorders encompass a range of conditions that affect the nervous system of infants. These conditions can impact the baby's brain, spinal cord, muscles, and nerves, influencing their development and overall health.

The Importance of Early Detection

Early detection of neurological disorders in newborns is crucial as it can significantly improve the prognosis and quality of life for the child. Identifying the signs and symptoms of these conditions early on allows for prompt treatment, which can help to mitigate potential complications and enhance the child's developmental outcomes.

When it comes to seizures in newborns, one of the most common neurological disorders, early detection is particularly vital. Seizures can be indicative of underlying issues such as brain damage, infections, or metabolic disorders. Hence, recognizing and addressing seizures early on can help manage these conditions effectively and reduce the risk of long-term neurological damage.
Neurological Disorders in the Neonate | SpringerLink
Source: link.springer.com

Common Neurological Disorders in Newborns

Several neurological disorders can affect newborns. Here are some of the most common ones:

  1. Neonatal seizures: These are abnormal electrical patterns in a newborn's brain that can lead to changes in behavior. They can be caused by a variety of conditions such as brain injury, infections, or metabolic imbalances.
  2. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE): This condition occurs when a newborn's brain does not receive enough oxygen. It can lead to developmental delays, cerebral palsy, or epilepsy.
  3. Neonatal stroke: This is a disruption of blood flow to the newborn's brain, which can cause seizures, cerebral palsy, or learning disabilities.
  4. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL): PVL is a type of brain damage that affects premature infants. It can result in cerebral palsy or cognitive impairments.
  5. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH): IVH is bleeding into the brain's ventricles and is most common in premature babies. It can lead to hydrocephalus or cerebral palsy.

Understanding newborn neurological disorders, their causes, symptoms, and implications can help parents and caregivers ensure their infant receives the necessary care and intervention. This understanding forms a crucial part of the journey to managing conditions like seizures in newborns, promoting their health and well-being.

Comprehensive Guide to Seizures in Newborns

Navigating the complex world of newborn health can be challenging, especially when it comes to neurological disorders. Understanding seizures in newborns is a crucial aspect of early detection and effective treatment.

What are Seizures in Newborns?

Seizures in newborns, also known as neonatal seizures, represent the misfiring or abnormal electrical activity in an infant's brain. These seizures can cause a variety of symptoms, ranging from subtle body movements to more noticeable convulsions.

While some seizures may last only a few seconds, others may persist for several minutes. In most cases, these seizures occur within the first 28 days of life, often within the first week. It's important to note that seizures in newborns differ significantly from those experienced by older children or adults, both in presentation and in underlying causes.

Causes of Seizures in Newborns

There are several possible causes of seizures in newborns, many of which are linked to complications during pregnancy or delivery. These may include:

  1. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE): This condition results from a lack of oxygen to the baby's brain during birth. HIE is the most common cause of seizures in full-term babies.
  2. Infections: Certain infections contracted during pregnancy or birth, such as meningitis or encephalitis, can cause seizures in newborns.
  3. Metabolic disorders: Some inherited metabolic disorders can lead to seizures in newborns.
  4. Brain malformations: If a baby's brain does not develop correctly in the womb, it can lead to seizures after birth.
  5. Stroke: A stroke in a newborn, often resulting from a blood clot in the brain, can lead to seizures.

Understanding the causes of seizures in newborns is an important step towards successful diagnosis and treatment. While this guide offers a basic overview, parents should reach out to a healthcare professional for more personalized advice and guidance.

Identifying Seizures

One of the most challenging aspects of dealing with neurological disorders in newborns is identifying the signs. This is particularly true for seizures, which can be subtle and easily overlooked. Understanding the signs and different types of seizures is key to early detection and intervention.

Signs and Symptoms of Seizures in Newborns

Newborns experiencing seizures may exhibit a variety of signs. However, these can be subtle and might not resemble typical adult seizure symptoms. Some common signs of seizures in newborns include:

  • Stiffening of the body
  • Repetitive movements such as blinking, smacking lips, or pedaling legs
  • Brief pauses in breathing
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Changes in skin color

Keep in mind that these signs can vary greatly from one newborn to another. If any abnormal behavior is observed, it's crucial to seek immediate medical attention.

Different Types of Seizures

There are several different types of seizures in newborns, each with its distinct characteristics. Here are three common types:

  1. Neonatal Convulsion: This type of seizure often involves the baby's face, limbs, or body jerking repetitively and rhythmically.
  2. Subtle Seizures: These are the most common type of seizure in newborns. They involve movements or behaviors that are not typical for the baby, such as cycling or pedaling movements, fixed staring, or repetitive blinking.
  3. Tonic Seizures: During a tonic seizure, the baby's body, arm, or leg may stiffen. These seizures typically last less than two minutes.

Understanding these types and symptoms of seizures can help parents and caregivers recognize potential seizures in newborns. Early detection can lead to early treatment, which can significantly improve a child's prognosis and quality of life. Consequently, awareness of the signs of seizures in newborns is crucial for every parent and caregiver.

Diagnosis and Treatment

In the journey of understanding and managing seizures in newborns, diagnosis and treatment play crucial roles. Early and accurate diagnosis can lead to effective treatment plans, which can significantly improve the child's quality of life.

How are Seizures Diagnosed in Newborns?

The diagnosis of neonatal seizures often begins with a detailed medical history and physical examination. Medical professionals will look for signs and symptoms of seizures, as well as any potential underlying causes.

A key tool in diagnosing seizures in newborns is the electroencephalogram (EEG). This non-invasive test records the electrical activity in the baby's brain and can detect abnormal patterns that indicate seizures.

In some cases, further diagnostic tests may be necessary to identify the root cause of the seizures. These can include:

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Provides detailed images of the brain and can reveal structural abnormalities or damage.
  • Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: Can detect bleeding, swelling, or changes in the brain tissue.
  • Blood Tests: Can identify infections, metabolic disorders, or other medical conditions that may cause seizures.

Available Treatment Options for Seizures in Newborns

When it comes to treating seizures in newborns, the primary goal is to control the seizures and treat the underlying cause.

Medication is often the first line of treatment. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can help control seizures by reducing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain. The choice of medication will depend on the type of seizures, the baby's age, and general health.

In some cases, if medications are not enough to control the seizures or the cause of seizures is a structural issue in the brain, surgery may be considered.

Aside from medical treatment, comprehensive care for a newborn with seizures may also involve therapies to support development and manage any related conditions. This could include physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy, depending on the child's needs.

Managing seizures in newborns is a collaborative effort that involves medical professionals, parents, and caregivers. With prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment, many newborns with seizures can grow and develop normally. It's important for parents to work closely with their child's healthcare team to create a personalized care plan that best addresses the child's needs.

Living and Coping with a Child with Seizures

Having a newborn diagnosed with seizures can be stressful and challenging. However, with the right knowledge and resources, one can provide the best care for their child and manage their condition effectively.

Providing Support for Your Child

The first step towards providing the right support for a child with seizures is understanding the nature of their condition and the treatment plan provided by their healthcare provider. Consistent follow-ups on medical appointments and adherence to medications and therapies prescribed are crucial.

In addition to medical care, creating a safe and comfortable environment for the child is also important. Seizure-proofing the home, such as adding padding to sharp furniture corners and ensuring the child's sleeping area is safe, can help prevent injury during a seizure.

A vital aspect of supporting a child with seizures is being prepared for a seizure episode. Parents should be trained in recognizing signs of an impending seizure and providing first aid. This includes knowing how to position the child safely during a seizure, when to administer rescue medication, and when to seek immediate medical attention.

It's also essential to maintain good communication with the child's healthcare providers, teachers, and caregivers. They should be fully informed about the child's condition, the signs of seizures, and the necessary steps to take during a seizure.

Resources for Parents of Children with Seizures

Parents of children with seizures are not alone; numerous resources can provide information, support, and guidance. These include:

  1. Medical Professionals: Healthcare providers can offer medical advice, treatment options, and provide referrals to specialists. They can also guide parents towards local support groups and educational resources.
  2. Support Groups: Local and online support groups can be a valuable source of comfort and information. They can provide a platform where parents can share experiences, advice, and emotional support.
  3. Educational Materials: Books, pamphlets, and online resources on seizures can help parents understand their child's condition better. These materials can provide insights into the causes, symptoms, treatments, and coping strategies for seizures.
  4. Counseling and Therapy: Professional counselors and therapists can help parents and families deal with the emotional impact of having a child with seizures. They can provide strategies to manage stress, anxiety, and other mental health issues that might arise.
  5. Community Services: Local community services can provide practical assistance like home modifications, transportation, and financial aid.

Coping with a child's seizures can be a challenging journey, but with the right support and resources, parents can navigate this path more confidently. It's crucial to remember that every child is unique, and what works for one may not work for another. Therefore, always seek personalized medical advice for the best care for your child.


In conclusion, seizures in newborns can be a frightening and challenging experience for parents and caregivers. However, with early detection, accurate diagnosis, and appropriate treatment, many newborns with seizures can lead healthy and fulfilling lives. It's crucial to stay informed about the signs and symptoms of seizures in newborns, work closely with healthcare professionals to create personalized care plans, provide a safe and supportive environment for the child, and seek out available resources and support systems. By doing so, parents can help their child thrive despite the challenges posed by seizures.


Recent Articles

Effective Techniques for Managing Diabetes in Children

July 12, 2024

Empower your child's future with effective techniques for managing diabetes in children.

Community Support for Children with Diabetes

July 12, 2024

Explore community support for diabetic children, the role of health clubs, and access to care essentials.

Top Pediatric Diabetes Management Programs

July 12, 2024

Discover top pediatric diabetes management programs for comprehensive child care and smoother transitions to adulthood.

Effective Home Treatments for Childhood Diabetes

July 12, 2024

Discover effective home treatments for childhood diabetes, from nutritional support to emotional care.

Essential Home Care for Children with Diabetes

July 12, 2024

Gain confidence in home care for children with diabetes with our empowering guide for parents.

Navigating Pediatric Cardiac Care at Home

July 10, 2024

Empower your pediatric cardiac care at home with our guide. Navigate emergencies and equipment with ease.

Essential Steps in Heart Condition Rehabilitation for Kids

July 10, 2024

Empower your child's heart health journey with our guide on heart condition rehabilitation for kids.

The Pediatric Out-of-Hospital Chain of Survival Steps

July 10, 2024

Master pediatric out-of-hospital chain of survival steps and empower your child's cardiac care at home.

Cardiovascular Emergencies in Pediatric Patients

July 10, 2024

Master managing cardiovascular emergencies in pediatric patients with expert home cardiac care tips.

Home-Based Heart Health Programs for Children

July 10, 2024

Discover the transformative power of home-based heart health programs for children. Better care at home!

Effective Home Treatments for Childhood Asthma

July 8, 2024

Explore effective home treatments for childhood asthma, from natural therapies to allergy control.

Best Practices for Children's Asthma Management at Home

July 8, 2024

Master children's asthma management at home with strategies on triggers, school challenges, and emergencies.

Pediatric Asthma Care Programs That Make a Difference

July 8, 2024

Discover effective pediatric asthma care programs, from diagnosis to treatment, for your child's success.

Community Support for Kids Battling Asthma

July 8, 2024

Discover community support for kids with asthma in NY—enhancing care, school programs, and resources.

Expert Advice for Managing Children's Asthma With Home Care

July 8, 2024

Gain expert insights on managing asthma in children with home care. Empower your family today!

Respite Care for Children with Special Needs

July 8, 2024

Explore respite care for children with special needs, from access to benefits, offering a lifeline for caregivers.

Is There a Cure for Sickle Cell Anemia?

July 8, 2024

Explore advancements towards curing sickle cell anemia, from gene therapy to FDA-approved treatments.

Infant Chronic Lung Disease: Breaking Down the Risks

July 8, 2024

Discover the complications of infant chronic lung disease, its risk factors, and strategies for management.

Impulse Control Disorders in Children

July 8, 2024

Conquer impulse control disorders in children with effective strategies and professional help. Get the support your child needs now!

Impulse Control Disorders and Substance Abuse: Exploring the Relationship

July 8, 2024

Unveiling the link between impulse control disorders and substance abuse. Discover the hidden dangers and find support for parents.

How to Treat High Blood Pressure in Teenager

July 8, 2024

Learn effective strategies to manage high blood pressure in teenagers, promoting healthier lifestyles and better long-term health.

How to Treat High Blood Pressure in Children?

July 8, 2024

Master strategies to treat high blood pressure in children through balanced diet, regular exercise, and medical interventions.

How to Teach a Child with Intellectual Disability to Read

July 8, 2024

Explore strategies on how to teach a child with intellectual disability to read. Empower minds today!

How To Support Teens During Major Life Transitions

July 8, 2024

Learn how to support teens during major life transitions with effective tools and strategies, promoting resilience and positive growth.

How To Support A Teen With Social Anxiety

July 8, 2024

Learn how to support a teen with social anxiety, from treatment options to creating supportive environments.

How To Support A Teen With Learning Disabilities

July 8, 2024

Discover how to support a teen with learning disabilities: from early intervention to empowering tools.

How to Support a Teen with ADHD: A Guide

July 8, 2024

Learn how to support a teen with ADHD through academic strategies, fostering independence, and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

How to Obtain Respite Care For Your Child's Wellbeing

July 8, 2024

Learn how to get respite care for your child, ensuring their wellbeing and giving you peace of mind through reliable care services.

How To Help Teens Manage Academic Pressure

July 8, 2024

Empower teens to manage academic pressure with effective strategies for stress reduction and self-care.

How To Help Teens Develop Healthy Relationships

July 8, 2024

Learn how to help teens develop healthy relationships, from nurturing friendships to handling digital influences.

How To Help Teens Develop Healthy Coping Mechanisms

July 8, 2024

Empower teens with healthy coping mechanisms. Harness their inner strength and conquer stress wisely with effective strategies and support.

How To Help Teens Develop A Healthy Self-esteem

July 8, 2024

Learn how to help teens build a healthy self-esteem. Nurture strength and resilience for lifelong confidence.

How To Handle Substance Abuse In Teens

July 8, 2024

Learn how to handle substance abuse in teens: from recognizing signs to exploring effective interventions.

How to Get Respite Care for My Child?

July 8, 2024

Learn how to get respite care for your child, explore financial aid options, and locate trusted services to support your family.

How to Get Health Insurance for Your Child with Autism?

July 8, 2024

Navigate steps to secure health insurance for your child with autism, ensuring comprehensive coverage and effective care plans.

How To Foster Positive Body Image In Adolescents

July 8, 2024

Explore how to foster positive body image in adolescents, from mental well-being to social influences.

How to Create a Safe Space for Teens to Express Their Emotions

July 8, 2024

Learn how to create a safe space for teens to express emotions, using trust, dialogue, and technology.

How to Become a Respite Caregiver for ASD

July 8, 2024

Discover how to become a respite caregiver for ASD, join a rewarding field and make a real difference.

How to Become a HCBS Provider in NY

July 8, 2024

Learn how to become an HCBS provider in NY, from Medicaid enrollment to maintaining compliance and providing high-quality care.

How to Apply for Child Care in the United States

July 8, 2024

Navigate how to apply for child care in the US, from financial aid to state programs, with our guide.

How To Address Self-harm Behaviors In Teens

July 8, 2024

Learn how to address self-harm behaviors in teens - from recognizing signs to effective intervention strategies.

How To Address Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) In Teens?

July 8, 2024

Navigate 'how to address OCD in teens' - understanding symptoms, treatments, and the power of empathy.

How To Address Anger Issues In Adolescents

July 8, 2024

Learn how to address anger issues in adolescents with effective techniques and professional interventions.

How Sickle Cell Anemia is Inherited in Families?

July 8, 2024

Decode how sickle cell anemia is inherited and learn about risk assessment, testing, and counseling.

How Respite Can Help You and Your Child: Your Lifeline in Parenting

July 8, 2024

Discover how respite can help you and your child with disabilities – a lifeline for parents in New York.

How Rare is Childhood Dementia?

July 8, 2024

Unveiling the truth: Is childhood dementia rare? Explore the prevalence, impact, & advances in research for families facing this challenge.

How Much Time Should Parents Spend with Their Child?

July 8, 2024

Navigate the question of how much time parents should spend with their child, with a focus on autism.

How Much Is Child Support In NYC?

July 8, 2024

Get insights on 'how much is child support in NYC?' Explore factors, additional costs, and legal repercussions.

How Much Is Child Support For Two Kids In NY?

July 8, 2024

Discover how much is child support for 2 kids in NY? Unravel the factors, court's role, and services.

How Much Is Child Support For Four Kids In NYS?

July 8, 2024

Unveil the truth about how much child support is required for four kids in NYS. Explore the factors, laws, and guidelines involved.

How Much Does Health Insurance for a Child with Autism Cost?

July 8, 2024

Navigate 'how much is health insurance for a child' with autism. Uncover costs, subsidies, and more.

How Much Do Physical Therapists Actually Make?

July 8, 2024

Unravel "how much do physical therapists make" with our comprehensive guide on salaries and factors.

How Much Do Daycare Workers Get Paid in New York?

July 8, 2024

Discover how much daycare workers get paid in New York, and uncover the factors influencing their wages and overall compensation.

How Much Child Support Do I Need For One Child In NY?

July 8, 2024

Demystify how much child support is needed for one child in NY with our comprehensive guide, providing clarity and essential information.

How Many Weeks of Free Respite Care Are You Allowed?

July 8, 2024

Unravel how many weeks of free respite care are you allowed. Learn about options, costs, and coverage.

How Many Long Term Care Facilities are in the US?

July 8, 2024

Get the lowdown on how many long-term care facilities in the US, their impact, and trends shaping them.

How Many Home Health Aides Are There in New York - A Closer Look

July 8, 2024

Discover the number of home health aides in New York and how they support families with disabled children.

How Many Home Care Agencies Operate in New York State?

July 8, 2024

Discover how many home care agencies operate in New York State. Find the support your autistic child deserves.

How Long Does Group Therapy Last

July 8, 2024

Dive into the ins and outs of group therapy and discover how long group therapy typically lasts, ensuring informed participation.

How Long Can A Child Have Diabetes Without Knowing

July 8, 2024

Unmask the silent threat by learning about diagnosing diabetes in children, understanding symptoms, and effective management strategies.

How Home and Community Based Services Enhance Lives

July 8, 2024

Explore how home and community based services are transforming care, enhancing quality of life, and shaping the future.

How DSS in NYS Supports Children with Disabilities

July 8, 2024

Explore 'what is DSS in NYS?' and how it supports children with disabilities through transformative services.

How Does Cardiovascular Disease Affects Childhood?

July 8, 2024

Discover how cardiovascular disease impacts childhood, affecting physical health, emotional wellbeing, and social interactions.

How Do You Deal With Intellectual Disability? The Power of Advocacy

July 8, 2024

Discover the power of advocacy for intellectual disability and how it creates opportunities and promotes equality.

How Do You Deal With a Mentally Unstable Child

July 8, 2024

Gain insights on dealing with a mentally unstable child, from recognizing signs to seeking professional help and effective support strategies.

How Do I Know if My Child Has Intellectual Disability

July 8, 2024

Discover how to recognize if your child has an intellectual disability and the support options available.

How Crisis Affects Middle Childhood Development

July 8, 2024

Uncover how crisis affects middle childhood development and learn strategies to provide robust support.

How Conflict and Crisis Impact Childhood Development

July 8, 2024

Explore how conflict and crisis affect childhood, their impacts, and multilevel support for healing.

How Common is Pediatric Hypertension?

July 8, 2024

Discover how common pediatric hypertension is and gain insights on its risk factors, symptoms, and management.

How Child Care Vouchers Help in NY

July 8, 2024

Navigate child care vouchers in NY - from eligibility to application, we've got your childcare costs covered.

How CFASS Can Help Your Child's Journey

July 8, 2024

Discover how CFASS empowers children with disabilities. Support, guidance, and resources for your child's journey!

Home-Based Waiver Programs for Kids

July 8, 2024

Discover home-based waiver programs for kids, simplifying care and assistance for your special needs child.

Home-based Therapy for Intermittent Explosive Disorder

July 8, 2024

Discover effective home-based therapy for intermittent explosive disorder, enhancing peace and quality of life.

Home-Based Strategies for Explosive Disorder Treatment

July 8, 2024

Explore effective home-based explosive disorder treatment strategies to transform your child's life.

Home-Based Strategies for ADHD Treatment

July 8, 2024

Discover effective home-based ADHD treatment strategies to empower parents and improve children's lives.

Home-Based Respite Services for Kids

July 8, 2024

Explore home-based respite services for kids in NY: a beacon of hope for caregivers of special needs children.

Home-based Mental Health Support For Kids

July 8, 2024

Explore home-based mental health support for kids in NY: resources, professional help, and self-care tips.

Home-based Anxiety Management For Kids

July 8, 2024

Create a calming home environment with strategies for managing anxiety in kids, from structured routines to relaxation techniques.

Home Health Care Services

July 8, 2024

Explore home health care services and their benefits, financing options, and their future, all in one guide.

Home Health Aide Hourly Earnings in NY

July 8, 2024

Discover how much home health aides make an hour in NY, their responsibilities, and the advanced tasks they handle to provide comprehensive care.

High Functioning Autism Symptoms Uncovered

July 8, 2024

Discover and understand high-functioning autism symptoms, their unique strengths, and the support needed for a fulfilling life.

High Blood Pressure in Teens: The Silent Threat

July 8, 2024

Unveiling the silent threat: High blood pressure in teens. Learn about risks, consequences, and effective management strategies.

Heart Disease in Children: Identifying Symptoms

July 8, 2024

Identifying heart disease symptoms in children: Stay vigilant and protect their little hearts with early detection.

Group Therapy Topics For Youth

July 8, 2024

Discover engaging group therapy topics for youth, fostering growth, resilience, and shared experiences through guided discussions.

HCBS Services Brochure: A Guide to Connecting Families with HCBS

July 8, 2024

Explore the HCBS services brochure: a guide to enhancing community integration, improving health outcomes, and accessing vital support.

HCBS Services List With Eligibility & Benefits

July 8, 2024

Master the HCBS services list! Learn eligibility, benefits, and how these services enhance quality of life.

Helping Children with ODD Thrive

July 8, 2024

Learn ways to manage ODD in children, from effective parenting techniques to school-based support.

Finding Autism and Mental Health Support for Kids in New York

July 8, 2024

Empower your parenting with our guide on autism and mental health support for kids in New York.

How to Become a HCBS Provider in New York

July 8, 2024

Unlock opportunities to become a HCBS provider in NY. Discover the requirements, application process & benefits for individuals with autism.

Intellectual Disability in Child Development

July 8, 2024

Explore intellectual disability in child development: its causes, impacts, and strategies for caregiver support.

Integrated Counseling for Enhanced Autism Treatment

July 8, 2024

Explore integrated counseling's potential in enhancing autism treatment, from benefits to future prospects.

Innovative Teletherapy Games for Children with Autism

July 8, 2024

Explore empowering teletherapy games for children with autism. Discover online resources and therapy benefits.

In-Home Support Services for Autism

July 8, 2024

Explore the impact of in-home support services for autism, from quality assurance to financial aspects.

How to Start a Private Home Care Business in New York: A Guide

July 8, 2024

Unlock NY's best-kept secret: Kickstart your private home care business and thrive in the booming healthcare industry!

How to Help a Child Overcome School Refusal

July 8, 2024

Discover how to help a child overcome school refusal with effective treatments and supportive strategies.

Intellectual Disability Resources [For Teachers]

July 7, 2024

Discover innovative teaching strategies for intellectual disabilities. Foster inclusive education and empower students to break barriers.

Intellectual Disability Symptoms

July 7, 2024

Unmasking intellectual disability symptoms: Understand the signs, causes, and management strategies.

Intellectual Disability Types: From Down Syndrome to Fragile X

July 7, 2024

Discover the diverse types of intellectual disability, from Down Syndrome to Fragile X. Understand symptoms, support, and interventions.

Is ADHD Considered An Intellectual Disability?

July 7, 2024

Discover the truth about ADHD and intellectual functioning. Is it an intellectual disability? Find out.

Is Autism Considered a Part of Intellectual Disability?

July 7, 2024

Explore if autism is considered an intellectual disability, challenging assumptions and shedding light on facts.