What is Peter Pan Disorder? Definition, Signs, & Causes

11 Jan 2022
Peter Pan Syndrome are adult individuals exhibiting childlike behavior. Not an official diagnosis, but can impact relationships.

What is Peter Pan Disorder?

Peter Pan disorder, also known as the Peter Pan syndrome, is a condition where a person refuses to grow up, take on adult responsibilities, and face the challenges that come with it. This condition is not recognized as a clinical diagnosis, but it is a term used by psychologists to describe a certain behavior pattern seen in some people.

Individuals with Peter Pan disorder often exhibit childlike behaviors and have a hard time adapting to change. They may struggle with making long-term plans and commitments, and often avoid taking on responsibilities that would require them to "grow up." This can lead to difficulties in personal relationships, as well as in their professional lives.

While Peter Pan disorder is not an official diagnosis, it can still have a significant impact on a person's life. If you or someone you know is struggling with this behavior pattern, it may be helpful to seek the guidance of a mental health professional. With the right support and resources, it is possible to overcome Peter Pan disorder and lead a fulfilling life.

Peter Pan Syndrome Signs and Symptoms

Peter Pan Syndrome, also known as the "lost boy complex," is a term used to describe individuals who exhibit behaviors that are characteristic of immaturity and a lack of responsibility. While it's not an official medical diagnosis, it's a term that is often used in popular culture to describe those who refuse to grow up.

Symptoms of Peter Pan Syndrome

People with Peter Pan disorder typically exhibit a range of behaviors that are telling of their condition. They:

  • Avoid commitment and responsibility, refusing to work or take on adult responsibilities.
  • Engage in reckless behavior without thinking of the consequences.
  • Seek constant approval and attention from others.
  • Display a lack of empathy and emotional depth, making it difficult for them to form lasting relationships.
  • Refuse to let go of their childhood interests and hobbies, often preferring to spend their time playing video games or watching cartoons instead of engaging in more adult activities.

It's important to note that while some people may exhibit these behaviors from time to time, a diagnosis of Peter Pan Syndrome requires a pattern of persistent and pervasive immaturity that interferes with a person's ability to function in daily life. If you or someone you know is struggling with these symptoms, it may be helpful to seek the guidance of a mental health professional.

Causes of Peter Pan Disorder

The exact causes of Peter Pan disorder are not fully understood, but research has identified several factors that may contribute to this condition.

What Factors Contribute to This Condition?

  • Overprotective parenting can prevent children from developing the independence and self-reliance needed to grow into mature adults.
  • Trauma or abuse during childhood can disrupt emotional development and leave individuals feeling stuck in a state of emotional immaturity.
  • Failure to develop healthy coping mechanisms may lead to immature behaviors as a way to avoid dealing with stress, anxiety, and other negative emotions.
  • Fear of failure or rejection can lead to avoiding taking risks and making decisions that could lead to personal growth and development.
  • Lack of positive role models can make it difficult for individuals to develop the skills and traits needed to become mature, responsible adults.

The Impact of Peter Pan Disorder on Personal Relationships

Free photo couple having communication problems

Individuals with Peter Pan disorder may struggle to form and maintain healthy personal relationships. Their refusal to take on adult responsibilities, coupled with their childlike behaviors, can lead to conflicts and misunderstandings in relationships.

Lack of Trust

One of the key issues that arise in relationships involving someone with Peter Pan disorder is a lack of trust. Partners or family members may feel like they cannot rely on the individual to follow through on commitments or take responsibility for their actions. This can lead to feelings of frustration, resentment, and anger.

Lack of Empathy

Another issue is that individuals with Peter Pan disorder may struggle to empathize with others. They may not understand how their behavior impacts those around them, leading to hurtful comments or actions that strain relationships.

Difficulty Finding Common Ground

Finally, because individuals with Peter Pan disorder often prefer activities associated with childhood over those associated with adulthood, they may struggle to find common ground with partners or friends who do not share these interests. This can lead to feelings of isolation and loneliness and further strain relationships.

It's important for individuals struggling with Peter Pan disorder to seek professional help in order to overcome these challenges and build healthy personal relationships. Through therapy and support from loved ones, it is possible for individuals with this condition to learn how to navigate adult responsibilities while still maintaining aspects of their childlike nature.

Is it Narcissism or Peter Pan Syndrome?

While the two conditions share some similarities, they are distinct disorders.

  • Narcissism is a personality disorder characterized by an inflated sense of self-importance, a lack of empathy for others, and an excessive need for admiration.
  • In contrast, Peter Pan syndrome is not an official diagnosis but rather a term used to describe individuals who exhibit childlike behaviors and avoid taking on adult responsibilities.

While there may be some overlap between the two conditions, it's important to note that they are distinct disorders with different causes and treatments.

  • Individuals with narcissistic personality disorder may benefit from therapy that helps them develop empathy and learn how to form healthy relationships with others.
  • On the other hand, individuals struggling with Peter Pan syndrome may benefit from therapy that helps them develop coping mechanisms to deal with stress and anxiety and learn how to take on adult responsibilities.

The Connection between Peter Pan Syndrome and Anxiety or Depression

Individuals with Peter Pan syndrome may struggle with anxiety or depression as they face the challenges of adulthood. As they avoid taking on adult responsibilities, they may feel overwhelmed by the expectations placed on them by society, family, or friends. This can lead to feelings of anxiety and stress.

Moreover, the avoidance of adult responsibilities can lead to feelings of helplessness and hopelessness that are characteristic of depression. Individuals with Peter Pan syndrome may feel like they lack purpose or direction in life, leading to a sense of emptiness that can contribute to depressive symptoms.

It's important for individuals struggling with Peter Pan syndrome and related anxiety or depression to seek professional help. Therapy can provide a safe space to explore these feelings and develop coping mechanisms to deal with stress and anxiety. With the right support, it is possible for individuals with this condition to learn how to navigate adulthood while still maintaining aspects of their childlike nature.

How to Identify if Someone Has Peter Pan Disorder

Free photo medium shot couple doing activities

Identifying someone with Peter Pan disorder can be challenging as it is not an official diagnosis and not everyone who exhibits some of the symptoms may have the condition. However, there are some signs that can help you identify if someone you know might have Peter Pan disorder.

Signs to Look Out For

  • Refusal to take on adult responsibilities such as paying bills, holding a job, or taking care of their own living space.
  • A preference for activities that are typically associated with children such as playing video games, watching cartoons, or engaging in other forms of escapism.
  • Difficulty adapting to change and avoiding commitments or planning for the future.
  • Engaging in reckless behavior without thinking about consequences or taking responsibility for their actions.
  • Seeking constant attention and approval from others and becoming upset when they don't receive it.
  • Displaying a lack of empathy towards others and struggling to form close relationships.

If someone you know exhibits some or all of these signs, it may be worth having a conversation with them about how they're feeling. It's important to approach the topic with sensitivity and understanding, as individuals with Peter Pan disorder may feel shame or embarrassment about their behavior. Encouraging them to seek professional help can be beneficial in managing their symptoms and improving their quality of life.

Treatment: Hope for those with Peter Pan disorder

If you or a loved one is struggling with Peter Pan disorder, it's important to know that there is hope. While there is no specific cure for this condition, there are treatment options available that can help individuals manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

Individual Therapy

One possible treatment option is therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be especially helpful in addressing underlying issues and developing coping mechanisms. This type of therapy focuses on identifying and changing negative thought patterns and behaviors, which can help individuals break free from the cycle of Peter Pan syndrome.

Family Therapy

In addition to individual therapy, family therapy may also be beneficial for those with Peter Pan disorder. This type of therapy can help address any underlying family dynamics that may be contributing to the condition. By working together with loved ones, individuals with Peter Pan syndrome can learn to better understand their own emotions and relationships, and build stronger, healthier connections with those around them.

Strategies for Preventing Peter Pan Syndrome in Children

While there is no guaranteed way to prevent Peter Pan syndrome from developing in children, there are some strategies that parents can use to help their children develop healthy emotional and behavioral patterns.

Encourage Independence and Responsibility

One of the most important things parents can do is encourage independence and responsibility in their children. This means giving them opportunities to take on age-appropriate tasks and responsibilities such as doing chores, managing their own schedules, and making decisions about their own lives. By allowing children to take on these responsibilities, parents can help them develop a sense of confidence and self-reliance that will serve them well as they grow older.

Avoid Overprotection

At the same time, it's important for parents to avoid overprotecting their children. While it's natural for parents to want to shield their children from harm, too much protection can actually hinder a child's development. By allowing children to experience failure and disappointment, parents can help them learn how to cope with difficult situations and build resilience.

Encourage Positive Role Models

Another important strategy is encouraging positive role models in a child's life. This could include family members, teachers, coaches or other adults who model healthy behaviors and attitudes. By having positive role models in their lives, children can learn what it means to be responsible, empathetic and emotionally mature.

Foster Healthy Coping Mechanisms

Finally, it's important for parents to foster healthy coping mechanisms in their children. This means teaching them how to manage stress and anxiety in positive ways such as exercise or mindfulness practices. By learning healthy coping mechanisms at a young age, children will be better equipped to handle the challenges that come with adulthood.

By implementing these strategies into parenting practices, parents can help prevent Peter Pan syndrome from developing in their children. It is important for individuals with this condition or those who know someone struggling with it to seek professional help in order to overcome their challenges and lead fulfilling lives.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Peter Pan Syndrome is a term used to describe individuals who exhibit childlike behaviors and avoid taking on adult responsibilities. While it is not an official diagnosis, it can have a significant impact on an individual's personal relationships and overall well-being.

However, with the right support and treatment, it is possible for individuals struggling with this condition to learn how to navigate adulthood while still maintaining aspects of their childlike nature. Therapy, both individual and family-based, can be helpful in developing coping mechanisms and addressing underlying issues.

Prevention strategies for parents can also play a pivotal role in fostering healthy emotional and behavioral patterns in children to avoid the development of Peter Pan Syndrome.

It's important for individuals struggling with Peter Pan Syndrome or those who know someone who is to seek professional help in order to overcome their challenges and lead fulfilling lives.

Sources

Recent Articles

Navigating Pediatric Cardiac Care at Home

July 18, 2024

Empower your pediatric cardiac care at home with our guide. Navigate emergencies and equipment with ease.

Top Pediatric Diabetes Management Programs

July 18, 2024

Discover top pediatric diabetes management programs for comprehensive child care and smoother transitions to adulthood.

Cardiovascular Emergencies in Pediatric Patients

July 18, 2024

Master managing cardiovascular emergencies in pediatric patients with expert home cardiac care tips.

Home-Based Heart Health Programs for Children

July 18, 2024

Discover the transformative power of home-based heart health programs for children. Better care at home!

Essential Home Care for Children with Diabetes

July 18, 2024

Gain confidence in home care for children with diabetes with our empowering guide for parents.

Effective Techniques for Managing Diabetes in Children

July 18, 2024

Empower your child's future with effective techniques for managing diabetes in children.

Community Support for Children with Diabetes

July 18, 2024

Explore community support for diabetic children, the role of health clubs, and access to care essentials.

Effective Home Treatments for Childhood Diabetes

July 18, 2024

Discover effective home treatments for childhood diabetes, from nutritional support to emotional care.

The Pediatric Out-of-Hospital Chain of Survival Steps

July 18, 2024

Master pediatric out-of-hospital chain of survival steps and empower your child's cardiac care at home.

Pediatric Asthma Care Programs That Make a Difference

July 18, 2024

Discover effective pediatric asthma care programs, from diagnosis to treatment, for your child's success.

Community Support for Kids Battling Asthma

July 18, 2024

Discover community support for kids with asthma in NY—enhancing care, school programs, and resources.

Best Practices for Children's Asthma Management at Home

July 18, 2024

Master children's asthma management at home with strategies on triggers, school challenges, and emergencies.

Effective Home Treatments for Childhood Asthma

July 18, 2024

Explore effective home treatments for childhood asthma, from natural therapies to allergy control.

Expert Advice for Managing Children's Asthma With Home Care

July 18, 2024

Gain expert insights on managing asthma in children with home care. Empower your family today!

Essential Steps in Heart Condition Rehabilitation for Kids

July 18, 2024

Empower your child's heart health journey with our guide on heart condition rehabilitation for kids.

Finding Autism and Mental Health Support for Kids in New York

July 18, 2024

Empower your parenting with our guide on autism and mental health support for kids in New York.

Specialized Therapy for Autism with Health Conditions

July 18, 2024

Discover specialized therapy for autism with health conditions, transforming lives for New York families.

Home-Based Support for Fragile Children with Autism

July 18, 2024

Exploring home-based support for fragile children with autism. Empower your child's journey with tailored guidance.

Integrated Autism and Mental Health Services

July 18, 2024

Explore integrated autism and mental health services, breaking barriers for quality care access.

Comprehensive Care for Medically Fragile Children with Autism

July 18, 2024

Explore comprehensive care for medically fragile children with autism and learn to support their unique needs.

Empowering Kids with Bullying Support

July 18, 2024

Empower your kids with bullying support strategies, understand the signs, and prevent long-term effects.

Community Prevention Programs Against Bullying:

July 18, 2024

Explore effective community bullying prevention programs, their strategies, and success in combating bullying.

Supporting Recovery from Bullying at Home

July 18, 2024

Discover strategies for recovering from bullying at home, empowering victims, and creating a safe haven.

Bullying Victims At-Home Therapy Strategies

July 18, 2024

Empower bullying victims with at-home therapy strategies. Transform trauma into strength and resilience.

Managing Bullying Effects at Home

July 18, 2024

Explore strategies for managing bullying effects at home and resources for creating a safe haven.

Overcoming School Refusal in Children at Home

July 18, 2024

Explore strategies for overcoming school refusal in children at home, from therapy to morning routines.

School RefusalCommunity Resources for Support

July 18, 2024

Explore community school refusal support programs and effective strategies to help your child thrive.

How to Help a Child Overcome School Refusal

July 18, 2024

Discover how to help a child overcome school refusal with effective treatments and supportive strategies.

Overcoming School Refusal with Effective Management

July 18, 2024

Unlock strategies for managing school refusal - from home interventions to anxiety relief techniques.

School Anxiety and Refusal: Symptoms & Interventions

July 18, 2024

Discover insights on school anxiety and refusal, learn to recognize symptoms, and explore effective interventions.

Pediatric Cardiology Resources For Families in New York

July 15, 2024

Discover pediatric cardiology resources for families in New York, empowering you with knowledge and support.

How to Support Children with Heart Conditions

July 15, 2024

Navigate strategies for supporting children with heart conditions, from diagnosis to lifelong care.

Community Cardiology Services for Kids in New York

July 15, 2024

Explore community cardiology services for kids in NY, helping build strong hearts with early detection and care.

What is a Pediatric Cardiology?

July 15, 2024

Uncover what is a pediatric cardiology? Learn about child heart conditions and expert care in New York.

Insights into Pediatric Heart Conditions

July 15, 2024

Navigate through pediatric heart conditions with expert insights - from diagnosis to long-term care.

Respite Care for Children with Special Needs

July 8, 2024

Explore respite care for children with special needs, from access to benefits, offering a lifeline for caregivers.

Is There a Cure for Sickle Cell Anemia?

July 8, 2024

Explore advancements towards curing sickle cell anemia, from gene therapy to FDA-approved treatments.

Infant Chronic Lung Disease: Breaking Down the Risks

July 8, 2024

Discover the complications of infant chronic lung disease, its risk factors, and strategies for management.

Impulse Control Disorders in Children

July 8, 2024

Conquer impulse control disorders in children with effective strategies and professional help. Get the support your child needs now!

Impulse Control Disorders and Substance Abuse: Exploring the Relationship

July 8, 2024

Unveiling the link between impulse control disorders and substance abuse. Discover the hidden dangers and find support for parents.

How to Treat High Blood Pressure in Teenager

July 8, 2024

Learn effective strategies to manage high blood pressure in teenagers, promoting healthier lifestyles and better long-term health.

How to Treat High Blood Pressure in Children?

July 8, 2024

Master strategies to treat high blood pressure in children through balanced diet, regular exercise, and medical interventions.

How to Teach a Child with Intellectual Disability to Read

July 8, 2024

Explore strategies on how to teach a child with intellectual disability to read. Empower minds today!

How To Support Teens During Major Life Transitions

July 8, 2024

Learn how to support teens during major life transitions with effective tools and strategies, promoting resilience and positive growth.

How To Support A Teen With Social Anxiety

July 8, 2024

Learn how to support a teen with social anxiety, from treatment options to creating supportive environments.

How To Support A Teen With Learning Disabilities

July 8, 2024

Discover how to support a teen with learning disabilities: from early intervention to empowering tools.

How to Support a Teen with ADHD: A Guide

July 8, 2024

Learn how to support a teen with ADHD through academic strategies, fostering independence, and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

How to Obtain Respite Care For Your Child's Wellbeing

July 8, 2024

Learn how to get respite care for your child, ensuring their wellbeing and giving you peace of mind through reliable care services.

How To Help Teens Manage Academic Pressure

July 8, 2024

Empower teens to manage academic pressure with effective strategies for stress reduction and self-care.

How To Help Teens Develop Healthy Relationships

July 8, 2024

Learn how to help teens develop healthy relationships, from nurturing friendships to handling digital influences.

How To Help Teens Develop Healthy Coping Mechanisms

July 8, 2024

Empower teens with healthy coping mechanisms. Harness their inner strength and conquer stress wisely with effective strategies and support.

How To Help Teens Develop A Healthy Self-esteem

July 8, 2024

Learn how to help teens build a healthy self-esteem. Nurture strength and resilience for lifelong confidence.

How To Handle Substance Abuse In Teens

July 8, 2024

Learn how to handle substance abuse in teens: from recognizing signs to exploring effective interventions.

How to Get Respite Care for My Child?

July 8, 2024

Learn how to get respite care for your child, explore financial aid options, and locate trusted services to support your family.

How to Get Health Insurance for Your Child with Autism?

July 8, 2024

Navigate steps to secure health insurance for your child with autism, ensuring comprehensive coverage and effective care plans.

How To Foster Positive Body Image In Adolescents

July 8, 2024

Explore how to foster positive body image in adolescents, from mental well-being to social influences.

How to Create a Safe Space for Teens to Express Their Emotions

July 8, 2024

Learn how to create a safe space for teens to express emotions, using trust, dialogue, and technology.

How to Become a Respite Caregiver for ASD

July 8, 2024

Discover how to become a respite caregiver for ASD, join a rewarding field and make a real difference.

How to Become a HCBS Provider in NY

July 8, 2024

Learn how to become an HCBS provider in NY, from Medicaid enrollment to maintaining compliance and providing high-quality care.

How to Apply for Child Care in the United States

July 8, 2024

Navigate how to apply for child care in the US, from financial aid to state programs, with our guide.

How To Address Self-harm Behaviors In Teens

July 8, 2024

Learn how to address self-harm behaviors in teens - from recognizing signs to effective intervention strategies.

How To Address Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) In Teens?

July 8, 2024

Navigate 'how to address OCD in teens' - understanding symptoms, treatments, and the power of empathy.

How To Address Anger Issues In Adolescents

July 8, 2024

Learn how to address anger issues in adolescents with effective techniques and professional interventions.

How Sickle Cell Anemia is Inherited in Families?

July 8, 2024

Decode how sickle cell anemia is inherited and learn about risk assessment, testing, and counseling.

How Respite Can Help You and Your Child: Your Lifeline in Parenting

July 8, 2024

Discover how respite can help you and your child with disabilities – a lifeline for parents in New York.

How Rare is Childhood Dementia?

July 8, 2024

Unveiling the truth: Is childhood dementia rare? Explore the prevalence, impact, & advances in research for families facing this challenge.

How Much Time Should Parents Spend with Their Child?

July 8, 2024

Navigate the question of how much time parents should spend with their child, with a focus on autism.

How Much Is Child Support In NYC?

July 8, 2024

Get insights on 'how much is child support in NYC?' Explore factors, additional costs, and legal repercussions.

How Much Is Child Support For Two Kids In NY?

July 8, 2024

Discover how much is child support for 2 kids in NY? Unravel the factors, court's role, and services.

How Much Is Child Support For Four Kids In NYS?

July 8, 2024

Unveil the truth about how much child support is required for four kids in NYS. Explore the factors, laws, and guidelines involved.

How Much Does Health Insurance for a Child with Autism Cost?

July 8, 2024

Navigate 'how much is health insurance for a child' with autism. Uncover costs, subsidies, and more.

How Much Do Physical Therapists Actually Make?

July 8, 2024

Unravel "how much do physical therapists make" with our comprehensive guide on salaries and factors.

How Much Do Daycare Workers Get Paid in New York?

July 8, 2024

Discover how much daycare workers get paid in New York, and uncover the factors influencing their wages and overall compensation.

How Much Child Support Do I Need For One Child In NY?

July 8, 2024

Demystify how much child support is needed for one child in NY with our comprehensive guide, providing clarity and essential information.

How Many Weeks of Free Respite Care Are You Allowed?

July 8, 2024

Unravel how many weeks of free respite care are you allowed. Learn about options, costs, and coverage.

How Many Long Term Care Facilities are in the US?

July 8, 2024

Get the lowdown on how many long-term care facilities in the US, their impact, and trends shaping them.

How Many Home Health Aides Are There in New York - A Closer Look

July 8, 2024

Discover the number of home health aides in New York and how they support families with disabled children.

How Many Home Care Agencies Operate in New York State?

July 8, 2024

Discover how many home care agencies operate in New York State. Find the support your autistic child deserves.

How Long Does Group Therapy Last

July 8, 2024

Dive into the ins and outs of group therapy and discover how long group therapy typically lasts, ensuring informed participation.

How Long Can A Child Have Diabetes Without Knowing

July 8, 2024

Unmask the silent threat by learning about diagnosing diabetes in children, understanding symptoms, and effective management strategies.

How Home and Community Based Services Enhance Lives

July 8, 2024

Explore how home and community based services are transforming care, enhancing quality of life, and shaping the future.

How DSS in NYS Supports Children with Disabilities

July 8, 2024

Explore 'what is DSS in NYS?' and how it supports children with disabilities through transformative services.

How Does Cardiovascular Disease Affects Childhood?

July 8, 2024

Discover how cardiovascular disease impacts childhood, affecting physical health, emotional wellbeing, and social interactions.

How Do You Deal With Intellectual Disability? The Power of Advocacy

July 8, 2024

Discover the power of advocacy for intellectual disability and how it creates opportunities and promotes equality.

How Do You Deal With a Mentally Unstable Child

July 8, 2024

Gain insights on dealing with a mentally unstable child, from recognizing signs to seeking professional help and effective support strategies.

How Do I Know if My Child Has Intellectual Disability

July 8, 2024

Discover how to recognize if your child has an intellectual disability and the support options available.

How Crisis Affects Middle Childhood Development

July 8, 2024

Uncover how crisis affects middle childhood development and learn strategies to provide robust support.

How Conflict and Crisis Impact Childhood Development

July 8, 2024

Explore how conflict and crisis affect childhood, their impacts, and multilevel support for healing.

How Common is Pediatric Hypertension?

July 8, 2024

Discover how common pediatric hypertension is and gain insights on its risk factors, symptoms, and management.

How Child Care Vouchers Help in NY

July 8, 2024

Navigate child care vouchers in NY - from eligibility to application, we've got your childcare costs covered.

How CFASS Can Help Your Child's Journey

July 8, 2024

Discover how CFASS empowers children with disabilities. Support, guidance, and resources for your child's journey!

Home-Based Waiver Programs for Kids

July 8, 2024

Discover home-based waiver programs for kids, simplifying care and assistance for your special needs child.

Home-based Therapy for Intermittent Explosive Disorder

July 8, 2024

Discover effective home-based therapy for intermittent explosive disorder, enhancing peace and quality of life.

Home-Based Strategies for Explosive Disorder Treatment

July 8, 2024

Explore effective home-based explosive disorder treatment strategies to transform your child's life.

Home-Based Strategies for ADHD Treatment

July 8, 2024

Discover effective home-based ADHD treatment strategies to empower parents and improve children's lives.

Home-Based Respite Services for Kids

July 8, 2024

Explore home-based respite services for kids in NY: a beacon of hope for caregivers of special needs children.

Home-based Mental Health Support For Kids

July 8, 2024

Explore home-based mental health support for kids in NY: resources, professional help, and self-care tips.

Home-based Anxiety Management For Kids

July 8, 2024

Create a calming home environment with strategies for managing anxiety in kids, from structured routines to relaxation techniques.

Home Health Care Services

July 8, 2024

Explore home health care services and their benefits, financing options, and their future, all in one guide.

Home Health Aide Hourly Earnings in NY

July 8, 2024

Discover how much home health aides make an hour in NY, their responsibilities, and the advanced tasks they handle to provide comprehensive care.